It performed by cardiac surgeons to heart, surgery is done on the heart muscle, valves, arteries, or other parts of the heart. It includes Aortic valve surgery, atrial septal defect repair, Cardiac transplant, Co-arctation of the aorta repair and Heart transplant. A heart-lung machine is used in most cases during open heart surgery. While the surgeon works on the heart, the machine helps send oxygen-rich blood to the brain and other organs. Open heart surgery is a traditional method for heart surgery which is done by opening the chest wall and then operating the heart. However, newer methods of heart surgery includes the insertion of a cardiac devise by making a small cut between the ribs instead of cutting the chest wall or breast wall.