Information engineering is the engineering discipline that deals with the generation, distribution, analysis, and use of information, data, and knowledge in systems. The field first became identifiable in the early 21st century. The components of information engineering include more theoretical fields such as machine learning, artificial intelligence, control theory, signal processing, and information theory, and more applied fields such as computer vision, natural language processing, bioinformatics, medical image computing, cheminformatics, autonomous robotics, mobile robotics, and telecommunications. Many of these originate from computer science, as well as other branches of engineering such as computer engineering, electrical engineering, and bioengineering. The field of information engineering is based heavily on mathematics, particularly probability, statistics, calculus, linear algebra, optimization, differential equations, variation calculus, and complex analysis. Information engineers often hold a degree in information engineering or a related area and are often part of a professional body such as the Institution of Engineering and Technology or Institute of Measurement and Control. They are employed in almost all industries due to the widespread use of information engineering.